Bak, Meredith A. “Democracy and Discipline: Object lessons and the Stereoscope in American    Education, 1870-1920.” Early Popular Visual Culture 10, no. 10 (2012): 147-167.


Brey, William. “James Cremer, Philadelphia’s Photographer.” Stereo World 6, no. 3 (1979): 4-14.


Clarke, Francis. “‘Let All Nations See’: Civil War Nationalism and the Memorialization of Wartime Voluntarism.” Civil War History 52, no. 1 (2006): 66-93.


Darrah, William Culp. Stereo Views: A History of Stereographs in America and their Collection. Gettysburg: Times and News Publishing Co., 1964.


Duany, Jorge. “Portraying the Other: Puerto Rican Images in Two American Photographic            Collections.” Discourse 23, no. 1 (2001): 119-153.


Malin, Brenton J. “Looking White and Middle-Class: Stereoscopic Imagery and Technology in the Early Twentieth-Century United States.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 93, no.4 (2007): 403-424.


Schiavo, Laura. “‘A Collection of Endless Extent and Beauty’: Stereographs, Vision, Taste and the American Middle Class, 1850-1880.” PhD diss., George Washington University, 2003. (Courtesy of the Library Company of Philadelphia).


Wajda, Shirley. “A Room with a Viewer.” Hard at Play: Leisure in America, 1840-1940. Edited by Kathryn Grover. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1992.